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It also had a major influence on the form of the public parks and gardens which appeared around the world in the 19th century.
Today, some large-scale English gardens and English landscape gardens are popular visitor cultural attractions managed by both English Heritage and the National Trust.
The Chelsea Flower Show is held every year and is said to be the largest gardening show in the world. English folklore developed over many centuries.
Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves.
While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith ,  others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.
During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.
Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.
The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.
Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.
The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ' s best restaurant in the world charts.
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.
Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.
Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.
Sweet pastries include scones either plain or containing dried fruit served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits.
Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza ,  and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.
The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.
There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.
In the 19th century, Constable and Turner were major landscape artists. Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin.
Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth ,  while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.
William Shakespeare. More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism.
In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.
Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G.
Cole are somewhat related. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.
It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel spent most of his composing life in London and became a national icon in Britain, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, especially his English oratorios, The Messiah , Solomon , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.
In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals.
It is the largest open-air Asian festival in Europe. After the Notting Hill Carnival , it is the second-largest street festival in the United Kingdom attracting over 80, visitors from across the country.
Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton.
Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.
There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects  is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,  sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.
England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world.
Sports originating in England include association football ,  cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash ,  rounders ,  hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.
It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league,  most lucrative,  and amongst the elite.
As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.
Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.
One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia , contested since The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7.
William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years.
Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.
Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup.
Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.
Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F.
Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major is The Open Championship , played both in England and Scotland.
The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy. Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.
Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles  and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.
In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.
Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history.
England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Mike Hailwood , John Surtees , Phil Read , Geoff Duke , and Barry Sheene.
Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.
Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships.
Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker , and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan.
The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing ; founding and winning some of the world's most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race , a regatta, and the America's Cup.
The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa.
The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.
A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.
There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose , the nation's floral emblem , and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England.
The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace.
It is also known as the Rose of England. The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his father's execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile.
The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.
England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. This article is about the country.
For other uses, see England disambiguation. Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. See also: Toponymy of England. Main article: History of England. Main article: Prehistoric Britain.
Main article: England in the Middle Ages. Main article: Politics of England. Main article: English law. Main article: Subdivisions of England.
East Riding of Yorkshire. Greater London. Not shown: City of London. North Yorkshire. South Yorks. West Yorkshire. Greater Manc. East Sussex.
West Sussex. Isle of Wight. West Midlands. Ceremonial counties of England. Main article: Geography of England. Main article: Climate of England.
See also: List of places in England. Main article: Economy of England. Main articles: List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society.
Main article: Transport in England. Main article: Energy in the United Kingdom. Main article: Tourism in England. Main article: Healthcare in England.
Main article: Demography of England. Main article: English people. Majority native language. Official, but not majority language.
Main article: Religion in England. Further information: History of Christianity in England. Main article: Education in England. Main article: Culture of England.
Further information: English Renaissance. Main article: English folklore. Main article: English cuisine. Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England.
Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages. In the s, Englishman Joseph Fry invented the world's first solid chocolate.
Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish. Main article: English art. See also: Arts Council England.
Main article: English literature. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Further information: Folk music of England. See also: Music of the United Kingdom.
Thomas Tallis' "Lamentations I". See also: Cinema of the United Kingdom. Further information: List of museums in England.
Main article: Sport in England. Main article: National symbols of England. London's municipal population was also the largest in the EU.
Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number. Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number.
Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament. Office for National Statistics.
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Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 9 March UK Film Council. Evening Standard. The England team, meanwhile, continued to struggle, failing to qualify for the World Cup , with Revie defecting to coach the United Arab Emirates side just before this latest disappointment.
Things began turn around under his successor Ron Greenwood , who ended the decade by securing England's qualification for the European Championships , the first major tournament England had qualified for in 10 years.
Derby County , promoted to the First Division in after a lengthy absence, emerged as a force during the s, winning the league title in under the controversial but effective management of Brian Clough , and again in under Clough's successor Dave Mackay.
Clough, after a disastrous day spell as Don Revie's successor at Leeds United, enjoyed even greater success at Nottingham Forest , taking the East Midlands club to promotion in , the league title and League Cup in and to a further League Cup and the European Cup in , before retaining their European crown in Also among his acquisitions was the goalkeeper Peter Shilton , who went on to win a record of full caps for England.
The rise of football hooliganism marred the game throughout the s and s, which contributed to a decline in match attendance.
Other factors in falling attendances were the dismal economic conditions and rising unemployment which plagued the British economy for most of the s and into the s, with many clubs in the north of England being hit particularly hard.
Many of English football's most famous and successful clubs reached low ebbs during the s and s, in many cases at least partly due to financial problems.
Preston North End and Blackpool both fell into the Fourth Division and had to apply for re-election to the Football League between and Wolverhampton Wanderers found themselves on the verge of closure twice during the s and suffered three successive relegation which pushed them into the Fourth Division in Their local rivals Birmingham City dropped into the Third Division for the first time in Sunderland suffered the same fate as Birmingham two years previously, but achieved promotion at the first attempt and were soon challenging for a return to the First Division, while Wolves ended the decade back in the Second Division after two successive promotions.
Bolton Wanderers, four times FA Cup winners, were relegated to the Fourth Division in , but were promoted at the first time of asking.
The nadir came in May , when Liverpool fans hooliganism, combined with poor policing and infrastructure, led to the deaths of 39 Juventus fans before the European Cup final , in the Heysel Stadium disaster.
The sequel to the tragedy was a ban on English clubs in European competitions, which was not lifted for five years.
Due to the ban, many English star players transferred to continental clubs. England's ageing and poorly built stadiums were responsible for two disasters, at Bradford in May just before the Heysel tragedy and Hillsborough in April , resulting in the deaths of 56 and 96 people respectively.
In —87 automatic promotion and relegation between the Football League and non-league was introduced, with the bottom club in the league being relegated to the Conference.
The first club to suffer automatic relegation from the Football League was Lincoln City , who were replaced by the GM Vauxhall Conference champions Scarborough , only to regain their league status a year later.
That first relegation place in had very nearly been occupied by Burnley , league champions 27 years earlier and First Division members until just over a decade earlier, but victory in their final league game of the season secured their league survival.
Another major change which took place in English football during the second half of the s was a restructuring of the divisions. During the close season, the Football League decided to reduce the First Division to 21 clubs for the —88 season and finally to 20 clubs for the —89 season, while the Second Division would be increased to 23 and finally to 24 clubs in the process.
The s saw the FA Cup won twice by Second Division clubs, the first time in the postwar era that the trophy had been won by a club outside the First Division.
First, Sunderland lifted the trophy in at the expense of Leeds United. Three years later, Southampton defeated Manchester United to claim the first silverware of their history.
In , the trophy was won by a Second Division club for the third time in eight seasons when West Ham United triumphed over holders Arsenal.
The s saw five different clubs reach the First Division for the first time. In , Swansea City reached the First Division after climbing from the Fourth Division in just four seasons — the fastest rise of any club throughout the league at the time.
They topped the First Division more than once during the —82 season before finishing sixth. However, Swansea's successive story was short-lived, and their second season among the elite ended in relegation, and by they were back in the Fourth Division, having narrowly avoided going out of business.
They finished runners-up in the league in their first top division season and were FA Cup runners-up in their second, and survived in the First Division until Taylor later managed the England team, while Barnes went on to help Liverpool win five major trophies and was a regular member of the England side for the second half of the s and into the s.
They survived for three seasons in the First Division and won the League Cup in their first season among the elite. An even bigger success story emerged soon after Oxford's First Division arrival, when Wimbledon won promotion to the First Division in , a mere nine years after being elected to the Football League.
They quickly established themselves in the First Division, finishing sixth in their first season at this level, and even more impressively won the FA Cup a year later, beating league champions Liverpool 1—0 in the Wembley final.
Wimbledon would enjoy the longest stay in the top flight of any of the First Division's new arrivals of the s, retaining their tenancy at this level for 14 years.
Tipped by many to go straight back down, they actually topped the First Division briefly in its early stages before finishing 10th — the lowest position they occupied all season.
They briefly went top of the league again during the second month of the following season, but finished the season relegated after just two seasons in the First Division.
Eventually, promotion and relegation between the Conference and the Football League was increased to two clubs in — In the s, play-offs were introduced throughout the Football League for promotion each season, with one club each season being promoted via the end of season play-offs in addition to those clubs promoted automatically.
Liverpool remained the most successful club side in England during the s, winning the league title six times and the FA Cup twice including the double in They also won four successive League Cups, and before the Heysel disaster they won the European Cup in and again in , bringing their total number of victories in European football's biggest competition to four.
Everton also enjoyed a resurgence in the s. Following the appointment of Howard Kendall as manager in and the signing of inspirational striker Andy Gray in November , Everton won the FA Cup in and enjoyed even more success a year later, when they lifted the league title and their first European trophy — the European Cup Winners' Cup.
Although they failed to win any trophies in , they did finish runners-up to Liverpool in the league and reached the FA Cup final, where they lost 3—1 to their close neighbours, in a season where Gray's successor in attack, Gary Lineker , found the net more than 40 times in all competitions.
Despite the sale of Lineker to Barcelona in the summer of , Everton retained their league title the following season.
Manchester United endured a difficult time in the s following the retirement of Matt Busby as manager. They suffered relegation to the Second Division in , but achieved instant promotion and went on to win the FA Cup in The s brought more success for the club, who won the FA Cup in and again in under the management of Ron Atkinson.
Atkinson was succeeded by Alex Ferguson as manager in November , but by the end of the decade United had gone more than 20 years without winning the league title, although they had finished in the top four on no less than seven times during the decade.
Tottenham Hotspur also enjoyed success during the s and s. They achieved instant promotion under recently appointed manager Keith Burkinshaw , who then guided Spurs to back-to-back FA Cups and then another UEFA Cup triumph before stepping down as manager in Their North London rivals Arsenal won the League Cup in and ended their year wait for the league title in , when they beat Liverpool at Anfield in the final minute of the last game of the season to clinch the championship trophy on goal difference.
After spending an unsuccessful season in Italy with Juventus , Ian Rush headed back to Liverpool for a second spell with the club he had scored more than goals from during his first spell there.
The England team made considerable progress during the s after the barren performances of the previous decade, qualifying for every major tournament between and , with the exception of the European Championships , although their best run in any of these competitions was a quarter-final appearance at the World Cup.
The post-Hillsborough Taylor Report forced the conversion of major to all-seater , which was a requirement at all clubs in the top divisions by the —95 season.
At the same time, the money from television coverage was increasing rapidly, due to England reaching the semi-finals of the World Cup and a concerted effort to drive out hooliganism reinvigorated the national game.
The ban on English clubs in European competitions was lifted in July , although Liverpool still had to serve an additional year and it would be a further five years before all of the English places in European competitions were restored.
Enjoying a run of success under Alex Ferguson, they clinched the League Cup in the —92 season, although a shortage of goals in the second half of that season did cost them the league title, which was instead won by a resurgent Leeds United.
Liverpool also enjoyed a good start to the s, winning their 18th league title in , but were then stunned by the resignation of Kenny Dalglish as manager in February His successor Graeme Souness , who had enjoyed great success with the club as a player a decade earlier, guided the Reds to FA Cup glory in Arsenal, the champions of the English First Division, won another league title in , losing just once all season.
The FA Cup also headed to North London that year, although it was won by Tottenham Hotspur, who lifted the trophy for a record eighth time.
In the —92 season , following two years of widespread speculation about the leading clubs of English football forming a breakaway league from the Football League, the 22 clubs competing in the First Division resigned en masse from the Football League, forming a new top-level competition, The FA Premier League , overseen by the FA, largely to capitalize upon their status as the biggest and most wealthy clubs in the country, and negotiate more profitable television rights.
The new league came into force for the —93 season. Its first champions were Manchester United, who ended their year wait for a top division title, while Aston Villa came second and Norwich City third.
Thus, the First Division, while still the top level of the Football League, became the second level of the entire English football league system with the top clubs inheriting the promotion play-off system from the old Second Division.
The Premier League was reduced to 20 teams after the —95 season. The Premier League has been won by 6 clubs in its 24 seasons, with Manchester United winning on 13 occasions.
They have set many precedents in the process, becoming the first team to win a second double of the league title and FA Cup in their first double being won in , and in they won a unique treble of the league title, FA Cup and European Cup.
The final , for the first time, was played between two English teams, Manchester United and Chelsea. Manchester United won the final in Moscow on penalties after a 1—1 draw.
The early Premier League years saw the transfer record fee in English football broken many times in a relatively short period of time, and rise at a rate barely comparable with even that of the late s.
In , the record fee was broken three times in the space of six months. This fee, however, remained unsurpassed for more than four years.
Premier League clubs have been increasingly successful at attracting foreign players, particularly since the removal of the limit on fielding players from common market countries in the mid s.
Despite the dominance of Manchester United for most of the Premier League era, a number of other clubs have enjoyed considerable success since The first team to interrupt Manchester United's dominance were Blackburn Rovers, who won the third Premier League title by a single point in They had only returned to the top flight of English football in , in time for the new league's formation, after a year exile, bankrolled by the wealth of steel baron owner Jack Walker , who had enabled Blackburn to compete for some of the best players in English football.
However, Blackburn failed to remain competitive with the best English clubs, their only subsequent major trophy being the League Cup in , and they have never finished higher than sixth in the Premier League since their title triumph.
They endured a two-year exile from the Premier League after being relegated in , and since their second relegation in they have still yet to gain promotion.
On the first two occasions, they completed the double of the league title and FA Cup, while on the third occasion they won the title without losing a single league game all season.
Chelsea made history in when they won the FA Cup under Dutch manager Ruud Gullit , the first foreign manager to win a major trophy in English football.
Mourinho was in charge for more than three years until his sudden departure from the club in September , before returning for a second spell as manager six years later which lasted two years before getting sacked in December In the interim, Chelsea were managed by seven different managers over the course of six seasons, but continued to win trophies on a regular basis.
Manchester City , bankrolled since August by wealthy Arab owners, ended their year wait for a major trophy by winning the FA Cup in , and then won their first league title in 44 years the following season, both under the management of Italian coach Roberto Mancini.
His Chilean successor Manuel Pellegrini became the first non-European manager to win a major trophy in English football when he guided City to the Premier League title and the League Cup in After narrowly avoiding relegation the previous season, outsiders Leicester City won an unprecedented league title in , having never previously won the top flight title.
The winning squad was worth just one-tenth of that of Manchester City's. Leeds United, the last champions of English football before the creation of the Premier League, played in the first 12 seasons of the Premier League, peaking at third place in , before being relegated in in the midst of a serious financial crisis which was the direct result of heavy spending on players in the previous few seasons and a failure to net the extra revenue that successful challenges for domestic and European silverware would have brought them.
They have yet to return to the Premier League more than a decade later, and even spent three seasons in the league's third tier.
A spectacular decline in similar circumstances also befell Portsmouth , who reached the Premier League in and stayed there for seven seasons, lifting the FA Cup in The South Coast club were relegated from the Premier League at the end of the —10 season, having become the first club at this level to enter administration , and were deducted nine points at a result.
In , a third relegation in four seasons saw them relegated to the league's fourth tier for the first time in 35 years.
Since the creation of the Premier League, a number of England's leading clubs have relocated to new stadiums. After several smaller clubs adopted this approach rather than update their ageing homes in the late s and early s, newly promoted Middlesbrough became the first top flight club to relocate to a new stadium when they moved into the Riverside Stadium for the —96 season, ending a year residence of Ayresome Park.
Two years later, Middlesbrough's north-east rivals Sunderland left their historic Roker Park home for the new 42,seat Stadium of Light which has since been expanded to hold nearly 50, seated fans on the banks of the River Wear.
A number of clubs who initially chose to convert their existing homes into all-seater stadiums went on to relocate to new stadiums to gain a larger capacity from the turn of the 21st century, particularly those who had progressed throughout the league and attracted a higher demand for tickets since the early s.
Southampton relocated to St Mary's Stadium in after more than years at The Dell , with their new 32,seat stadium holding more than twice as many fans as their previous home had during its final years, as an all-seater stadium.
Having originally decided to stay at Maine Road , which was redeveloped to hold 35, seated fans by , Manchester City moved into the City of Manchester Stadium built for the previous year's Commonwealth games at the start of the —04 season.
Arsenal had converted Highbury into an all-seater stadium capable of holding just under 39, fans by , but within five years the club's owners had decided that such a capacity was inadequate and, after local residents objected to any expansion of Highbury parts of which were listed structures and a bid to buy Wembley Stadium from the Football Association was rejected, decided to build a new stadium at nearby Ashburton Grove.
Their new stadium, the Emirates Stadium , was completed in time for the —07 season, holding more than 60, spectators.
Wembley Stadium had been converted to an all-seater format by , but its capacity was reduced to 78, from its previous capacity of , By the mid s, plans were afoot for refurbishment or complete reconstruction of the stadium.
The eventual plan was for the old stadium to be demolished and a completely new 90,seat stadium to be built in its place. The old stadium finally closed in October and it was anticipated that the new stadium would be completed in , but a series of delays meant that demolition of the old stadium did not take place for two years after the last game was played, and the new Wembley was not opened until March In , Manchester City became the first English men's football club in history to complete the domestic treble.
Since its founding, however, many other leagues have been founded in England. Sunday leagues are played each weekend by clubs, the study made by the FA sees to this.
Over the years there has been an increasing effort to link all these leagues together in a Pyramidal structure allowing promotion and relegation between different levels.
The primary motivation for this drive is to maintain the possibility that any club in England may dream of one day rising to the very top, no matter what status they currently hold.
In a study made by FIFA in there are around 40, clubs registered with the FA, which is 11, more than any other country, the closest being the Brazilian Football Confederation who have 29, registered clubs.
Even without taking relative population into account, England has more football clubs than any other country in the world. The Premier League was founded in after England's top clubs broke away from the Football League in a successful effort aimed at increasing their income at the expense of clubs in the lower divisions.
Links with The Football League were maintained, and each season the bottom three clubs are relegated from the Premier League and replaced by the top three from the Championship.
The Premier League is contested between 20 clubs each season. Each club in the Premier League in any given season owns one twentieth of a share in the league itself, meaning that they are all supposedly equal owners with equal rights and responsibilities.
Despite the organisational split, promotion and relegation of clubs still takes place between the Premier League and the EFL.
This term can be confusing, as it refers to those clubs outside the EFL, although they still play in organised league competitions. In recent years, the top few levels have been consolidated into the National League System , operated by the FA.
Most clubs in the top flight of the NLS, the National League division , are fully professional; the remainder are semi-professional. There is promotion and relegation between League Two and the National League, and for several levels below that, although this becomes more irregular further down the league system.
The non-League system is often known as the "pyramid", because the number of leagues at each level begins to increase the further down through the levels, with each league covering a smaller geographic area.
Although the FA abandoned a formal definition of "amateur" in the early s, the vast majority of clubs still effectively play as amateurs, with no financial reward and the leagues are not part of the National League System.
The various County Football Associations , which are based roughly on the historic county boundaries , are the local governing bodies of football in England.
They govern all aspects of Sunday league football. Not all County Football Associations are run on county basis.
Each armed service has one, for instance such as the Army Football Association which administers football within the British Army. Sunday league football in England tends to be lower level amateur football, which is also sometimes referred to as Pub League due to the number of public houses who field teams in Sunday leagues.
Each local County Football Association governs all aspects of Sunday league football. Smaller-sided versions of the game such as Five-a-side football are popular.
Futsal is also a growing sport in England. These are often played informally, but there are many competitive small-sided leagues running across the country.
The top division for reserve teams of professional clubs is the Premier Reserve League , which was founded in and is split into Premier Reserve League North and Premier Reserve League South, both with ten participating teams.
The Central League was formed in and currently has 28 teams, split into three divisions — Central, North and South. The winners of each division and the best runner-up compete in the end-of-season play-offs to decide the league champions.
Whilst the Central League is for Football League reserve teams, The West Division contains a Manchester City side which uses a mix of reserve team and youth team squad players and in —08 they were Central League champions.
The Football Combination was formed in and currently has 30 teams. Whilst the majority of teams are Football League reserve teams, the Combination also currently has the reserve teams of two National League sides, Lewes , and Salisbury City.
The Football Combination also organises the Combination Challenge Cup, although not all clubs enter the cup. There is no promotion and relegation between the reserve team leagues.
When a first team is relegated from the Premier League, their reserve team withdraws from the Premier Reserve League to either of the other two leagues and is replaced by the reserve team of the club promoted from the Championship.
Below the professional club reserve leagues, many clubs also operate reserve teams, which play in separate Reserve leagues, such as the Lancashire League.
Some lower leagues, such as the North West Counties Football League organised their own reserve leagues. And, at some lower levels of the pyramid, reserve teams play against first teams.
Many club sides have youth teams. The top level of youth football is the Premier Academy League , founded in , which is for all Premier League and Football League clubs that have Academy sides.
The league, which currently has 40 clubs, is divided into four groups each with ten teams. The winners of each group contest the end-of-season play-offs to decide the league champions.
The second tier youth league is the Football League Youth Alliance , also founded in , in which those Football League clubs that have Centres of Excellence status field their youth teams.
The league, which currently has 58 clubs, is divided into four regional conference leagues. Over clubs enter the FA Youth Cup each season. There are several cup competitions for clubs at different levels of the football pyramid.
The England national football team represents England in international football. It is one of the two oldest national football teams in the world, the other one being Scotland.
England is one of only eight national teams to have won the World Cup and did this in They are one of the more prominent teams on the global stage, rarely dropping outside of the top ten rankings of both FIFA and Elo.
They were the most successful of the Home Nations in the British Home Championship with 54 wins including 20 shared wins before the competition was suspended in There are also a number of other national teams from the Under team to the Under team , the latter of which is considered to be a feeder team for the national team.
In addition there is an England B team which occasionally plays games as support for the national team.
They compete annually in the Four Nations Tournament as well as in friendly matches throughout the year.
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